source : http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/workin/business-functions.htm

Good companies meet demands, great companies create demands.

The following diagram gives most of the main functions that graduates will enter when starting a business career.

  • Internal functions are those which are part of the company.
  • External functions are those which are supplied by an outside agency.
  • Click on any of the jobs in the diagram below to go to more information about them.


business functions

Business Functions Map

  • This chart is a simplification. Not all companies can be easily categorised, and some will have specialist functions which are not included here, but is nevertheless provides a useful starting point for graduates considering a career in business.
  • Specialised businesses will have functions not mentioned here, for example retailers will have staff working as merchandisers.
  • Some companies will not have all the functions listed, for example service and finance companies will not normally have research and production departments.
  • Some functions such as Market Research and PR may be internal, external or both. A small company will probably hire an external agency when it needs these functions. A large company may well have in-house market research and corporate PR staff, but will still outsource much of the work that is of a specialist nature.


  • Research & Development
    Develops products. Designs & conducting experiments & tests. Interprets data. Manages projects. Writes reports. Keeps up to date with new developments.
  • Production & Quality
    Manages the production process. Plans production schedules. Ensures that machinery, staff & materials are efficiently utilised. Monitors health & safety & environmental issues. Liaises with marketing, research & finance.
  • Distribution/Logistics
    Manages all the supply chain processes from raw materials to where the end product is used. Coordinates supply, distribution & storage of goods. Manages transport & distribution centres including drivers & warehouse staff.


  • Sales
    Demonstrates & presents products to customers. Manages budgets. Learns about new products. Makes sure that the product meets the customers requirements. Writes tenders & proposals.
  • Marketing
    Coordinates all the elements involved in successfully promoting & selling a product: market research, pricing, packaging, advertising, sales, distribution. Involves forecasting, budgeting & planning, implementation of plans.


  • FINANCE – Management Accountant
    Provides the information required for the financial protection & planning of companies. Prepares accounting records & management information.
  • Computing
    Designs, implements & maintains computer systems to meet requirements of users. Provides computing support for staff. Maintains databases & networks.
  • HR/Personnel
    Recruits & selects new staff. Involved with contracts of employment, job descriptions, training, management development, industrial relations & disciplinary matters.
  • Buying/Purchasing
    Locates & maintains relationships with suppliers, of products. Negotiates prices, delivery dates & product specifications. Works with managers to anticipate future demands.


  • Chartered Accountants
    Visits clients as part of an audit team; reviews their business operations & financial records to establish the validity of the company’s accounts. Advises on tax liability & other matters.
  • Management Consultants
    Identifies & investigates, problems concerned with policy, organisation, procedures & methods of organisations. Recommends appropriate action & helps to implement this.
  • Recruitment Agency
    Matches job-seekers with employers’ vacancies. Assesses candidates’ skills & employers’ requirements.
  • Advertising
    Liaises with & advises clients on all aspects of marketing communications; presents proposals to clients; manages advertising spend budget; keeps clients up-to-date on their own & competitors activities.
  • Market Research
    This can be done by the marketing department inside a company, or by an external market research agency. Plans market research projects on behalf of the client. Analyses the problem. Drafts proposals. Prepares questionnaires & survey methods. Briefs interviewers. Analyses data & presents it to client. Prepares reports.
  • Public Relations
    All aspects of media & public relations for clients: e.g. corporate brochures & exhibition stands. Answers enquiries. Prepares press releases, organises press briefings, conferences & PR campaigns.

Office Rules

  1. Rule 1: The Boss is always right.
  2. Rule 2: If the Boss is wrong, see Rule 1.
  3. Those who work get more work. Others get pay, perks, and promotions.
  4. If you are good, you will get all the work. If you are really good, you will get out of it.
  5. When bosses talk about improving productivity, they are never talking about themselves.
  6. It doesn’t matter what you do, it only matters what you say you’ve done and what say you are going to do.
  7. Don’t be irreplaceable. If you can’t be replaced, you can’t be promoted.
  8. If at first you don’t succeed, try again. Then quit. No use being a fool about it.
  9. Following the rules will not get the job done.
  10. If it weren’t for the last minute, nothing would get done.
  11. Everything can be filed under “Miscellaneous” .
  12. In order to get a promotion, you only need to pretend that you know your job.
  13. When you don’t know what to do, walk fast and look worried.